Cutting Edge Articles to Download

To keep you informed of what is on the cutting edge of our work with individual differences, we are providing you with pdf’s you can download. You have our permission to forward these to friends and colleagues as long as you share them in their entirety. In some cases you will find a link to articles on other websites and we have asked their permission to link to their articles.

Note: Many of the articles listed here are about the development of a new lens that has emerged. We called it Cognitive Styles at first, but now are calling it Intentional Styles because it tells us our intentions as we think about things. This goes beyond Jung’s cognitive processes (aka function attitudes) and helps us see deeper patterns and commonalities among people who by their type codes would be expected to be opposites. If you are interested in participating in our research please contact us at

The Tandem Principle Linda V. Berens, Ph.D.

This article is based  on two articles previously published in the Bulletin of Psychological Type, Vol. 26, No. 4, Fall 2003 and Vol. 27, No. 1 Winter 2003.2004. It gives background information about the Jungian cognitive processes that will help you understand more about why different personality types look similar in the ways they access information and come to conclusions. This awareness factored into the development of the new Intentional Styles lens.

Over the years I began to notice that the cognitive processes(aka function-attitudes) seem to work in tandem with each other, often making it difficult to recognize a type pattern by looking at functions alone. The type code stands for a pattern of organization of the cognitive processes, which don’t randomly combine like ingredients in a recipe. Difficulties often arise in understanding these patterns because we don’t recognize this tandem nature of the processes. Download article to read more.

Integrated Type™: How Using Multiple Lenses Made a Difference Linda V. Berens, Ph.D.

This article is a application case study. I hope you enjoy reading it and testing your type identification skills. At the end, I share with you how it all turned out and also how I would have applied the new Intentional Styles lens, which you can read more about in Christopher Montoya’s articles.

Several years ago, I was engaged by a Midwest law firm to help resolve a very difficult
situation. I hadn’t intended to use type lenses overtly, but in the background, as I tried to help them reach a mutual understanding. I took my booklets with me as I usually do and, once I was in the process, I wound up doing the shortest version of using multiple models I’ve ever done. The key success was with Jeff, the ‘labeled problem person.’ Here is the story of what I did and why I think the Integrated Type approach worked so well. In it I used the three lenses and the multiple model approach I am known for creating. But now, I have another lens so I’ll add what I’ve learned since then. See if you can get any clues to the types of the players before I tell you them. As is the ethical practice, the names are fictitious, but the story isn’t. Download article to read more.

Completing the CORE: Respect, Teamwork, and Communication with Cognitive Styles Christopher L. Montoya, MA

This article was previously published in the APTi Bulletin, Vol. 36, Issue 4, Winter, 2013.

Cognitive Styles is a new type lens based on Jung’s eight cognitive processes, John Beebe’s work, Berens Cognitive Dynamics, and the research Linda Berens and I have conducted to find the cognitive style patterns. Cognitive Styles uncovers what seemingly opposite types share in common as a cognitive personality type style. This four-style model helps people understand their biases and filters as they seek to understand the world around them. It also helps us understand the cognitive needs and dynamics of self and others. Download article to read more.

The Cognitive Styles Lens: Deeper Type Clarification, Stronger Relationships, Richer Careers & Clearer Coaching Christopher L. Montoya, MA

This article was previously published in the APTi Bulletin, Vol. 37, Issue 3, Summer, 2014.

About five years ago I was taking a certification program with Linda V. Berens, Ph.D. at her office in Huntington Beach, California. At a break, I went up to Linda and asked why there were things that the four Essential Motivators (a.k.a. Temperament) have in common, and the same for Interaction Styles but why not four cognitive styles instead of the 8 processes. Gently, she said that a four-type style model wasn’t developed yet, but we could work on it if I was interested. I think I took her too literally, and after a few more conversations I was off working on looking for patterns. Download article to read more.

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